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Java Servlet: Servering static content

If you want to server static content -- like PNGs, Javascript, etc -- you need to explicitly tell your server this in its web.xml
 
Edit: I've changed this article due to an error and infelicitiy:
 
Add this file somewhere, and, voila, all the files in your res/ directory (in src/main/webapp/res in the gradle directory structure, that is) will be served.

@WebServlet("res/*")
public class ResourcesServlet extends HttpServlet {
  private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;

  public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) throws ServletException, IOException {
    RequestDispatcher rd = getServletContext().getNamedDispatcher("default");
    HttpServletRequest wrapped = new HttpServletRequestWrapper(req) {
      public String getServletPath() {
        return "/res/";
      }
    };
    rd.forward(wrapped, resp);
  }
}

java java-servlet java-servlet-static-content


Java: Accessing MANIFEST.MF fields in web projects

Let's say you have a MANIFEST.MF file of the form

Manifest-Version: 1.0
SomeVar: SomeValue

In a directory such as src/main/resources/META-INF, in the case of War projects files in Gradle, then when your WAR file is compiled it'll be in WEB-INF/classes/META-INF/.
 
When your application starts you can start a listener that parses this file, e.g. in your web.xml file define a listener that starts a class, which should be the first listener incase any subsequent listeners want to use the parsed variables:

<web-app>
        ...
        <listener>
                <listener-class>com.example.ManifestVars</listener-class>
        </listener>
        ...
 </web-app>

In the ManifestVars class, which must implement ServletContextListener since it's a listener, you can then parse the MANIFEST.MF file, giving the rest of your app static access to the fields therein.

package com.example;

import java.io.InputStream;
import java.util.jar.Attributes;
import java.util.jar.Manifest;

import javax.servlet.ServletContextEvent;
import javax.servlet.ServletContextListener;

/** 
 * Reads the war's manifest from /META-INF/MANIFEST.MF on application startup.
 * 
 * Must be included as the first <listener></listener> in the web.xml file.
 */
public class ManifestVars implements ServletContextListener {

	private static Attributes sMainManifestAttributes;
	
	/**
	 * Read the manifest from /META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
	 */
	@Override
	public void contextInitialized(ServletContextEvent sce) {
		try {
			InputStream inputStream = getClass().getClassLoader().getResourceAsStream("META-INF/MANIFEST.MF");
			Manifest manifest = new Manifest(inputStream);
			sMainManifestAttributes = manifest.getMainAttributes();
		} catch (Exception e) {
			throw new RuntimeException(e);
		}	
	}

	@Override
	public void contextDestroyed(ServletContextEvent sce) {
		sMainManifestAttributes = null;
	}

	/**
	 * Generic querying of the manifest.
	 * @return The result, as run through String.trim()
	 */
	public static String getValue(String name) {
		return sMainManifestAttributes.getValue(name).trim();
	}

}


In this class we get an InputStream of META-INF/MANIFEST.MF, and since our WAR file classes's directory is at WEB-INF/classes, then in this context, we're accessing WEB-INF/classes/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF.
 
It's probably a good idea, in this class, to define new static variables for parts of your MANIFEST.MF file, for example a getter and setter for 'SomeVar' in the MANIFEST.MF file.
 
Now in rest of your application, you can simple call somthing like ManifestVars.getSomeVar(), should you have defined that variable

java java-manifest


PART 4: Jersey 2 and Dependency Injection with HK2

(This is part of a series http://blog.denevell.org/category_java-web-quick-start.html)
 
Previously, we had the JPA and adapter code in the request object. This was obviously not ideal.
 
Jersey 2 comes with a JSR330 (dependency injection) implementation baked in, named HK2, so we can move the JPA model code and the adapter code into separate objects and inject them in.
 
Let's start with a simple object that will adapt the list of JPA entities into a resource entities (same code as before).

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class ExampleResourcesAdapter {
	
	public List<ExampleResource> adapt(List<ExampleEntity> list) { 
		ArrayList<ExampleResource> resList = new ArrayList<ExampleResource>();
		for (ExampleEntity exampleEExntity : list) {
			ExampleResource exampleItem = new ExampleResource();
			exampleItem.setStuff(exampleEntity.getTalky());
			resList.add(exampleItem);
		}
		return resList;
	}

}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPACKAGE/ExampleResourcesAdapter.java

Now let's move the JPA stuff into its own model. In this case we're also using an interface, although we don't have to for the DI to work. (Same JPA code as before, but without the comments)

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import java.util.List;

public interface AddListModel {
    List<ExampleEntity> addAndList(String someString);
}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPACKAGE/AddListModel.java

And now for the implementation of the interface.

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import java.util.List;

import javax.persistence.EntityManager;
import javax.persistence.EntityTransaction;
import javax.persistence.Persistence;
import javax.persistence.TypedQuery;

import org.apache.log4j.Logger;

public class AddListModelImpl implements AddListModel {

	@Override
	public List<ExampleEntity> addAndList(String someString) {
		EntityManager entityManager = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("PERSISTENCE_UNIT_NAME").createEntityManager();
		EntityTransaction transaction = entityManager.getTransaction(); 
		List<ExampleEntity> list = null;
		try {
			transaction.begin();
			ExampleEntity entity = new ExampleEntity();
			entity.setTalky(someString);
			entityManager.persist(entity);
			TypedQuery<ExampleEntity> nq = entityManager.createNamedQuery("list", ExampleEntity.class);
			list = nq.getResultList();
			transaction.commit();
		} catch (Exception e) {
			Logger.getLogger(getClass()).error("Problem persisting", e);
			transaction.rollback();
			throw e; 
		} finally {
			entityManager.clear(); 
			entityManager.close();
		}		
		return list;
	}

}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPACKAGE/AddListModelImpl.java

Now we have these objects, we need to tell the dependency injector about them. We do this using a AbstractBinder class.
 
(I think there's an automatic method for this, using annotations, but this is the only way I've got working.)

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import org.glassfish.hk2.utilities.binding.AbstractBinder;

public class DependencyBinder extends AbstractBinder {

	@Override
	protected void configure() {
		bind(AddListModelImpl.class).to(AddListModel.class);
		bind(ExampleResourcesAdapter.class).to(ExampleResourcesAdapter.class);
	}

}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPACKAGE/DependencyBinder.java

Note we're binding the iplementatioon of the model interface on the first bind line. And on the second just binding two concreate classes together.
 
We need to tell Jersey about this AbstractBinder, so in your JerseyApplication.java class you need to register it:

register(new DependencyBinder());

Now we can see the new request has two @Inject lines and is much, much shorter (also has a new @Path)

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import java.util.List;

import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.PathParam;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;

@Path("example_jpa_di")
public class ExampleJPAWithDIRequest {
	
	@Inject AddListModel mModel;
	@Inject ExampleResourcesAdapter mAdapter;

	@Path("{example}")
	@GET
	@Produces(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
	public List<ExampleResource> example(@PathParam("example") String example) {
		List<ExampleEntity> list = mModel.addAndList(example);
		List<ExampleResource> resList = mAdapter.adapt(list);
		return resList;
	}
}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPACKAGE/ExampleJPAWithDIRequeset.java

We can run it, and it'll have the same result as before (note the different url for the request)

gradle build
java -jar jetty-runner-9.1.0.M0.jar --port 8081 build/libs/YOUR_PROJECT_DIR.war

If you visit

http://localhost:8081/YOUR_PATH/example_jpa_di/ONE

and then visit

http://localhost:8081/YOUR_PATH/example_jpa_di/TWO

You should see the JSON, (should the database be blank before starting)

[{"stuff":"ONE"},{"stuff":"TWO"}]

java JPA jersey


PART 3: Using JPA and Postgresql in your application

(This is part of a series http://blog.denevell.org/category_java-web-quick-start.html)
 
Previously, in our build.gradle file we included these jars to allow us to talk to a Postgresql database through JPA.

compile 'postgresql:postgresql:9.1-901-1.jdbc4'
compile 'org.eclipse.persistence:eclipselink:2.4.0'

We needed the eclipse link repository for that.

repositories {
    maven {
        url 'http://download.eclipse.org/rt/eclipselink/maven.repo'
    }
    ...
}

Now we need to create a Postgresql database user and database to talk to. We'd normally set this up in the environment somehow before running the project.

(as root)
su - postgres
psql -c "create user test_username password 'test_password';"
psql -c "create database test_database owner test_username"
(logout from postgres and root)

Now we can create the persistence.xml file that tells JPA how to connect to our database. (Ensure there's no whitespace at the start of the file)

echo '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<persistence xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_2_0.xsd"
  version="2.0" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence">
  <persistence-unit name="PERSISTENCE_UNIT_NAME" transaction-type="RESOURCE_LOCAL">
    <mapping-file>META-INF/mapping.xml</mapping-file>
    <provider>org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.PersistenceProvider</provider>
      <properties>
      <property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.url" value="jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/test_database" />
      <property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.driver" value="org.postgresql.Driver" />
      <property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.user" value="test_username" />
      <property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.password" value="test_password" />
      <property name="eclipselink.logging.level" value="ALL" />
	   </properties>
	 </persistence-unit>
</persistence>
' > src/main/resources/META-INF/persistence.xml

This is doing a couple of things
Next we'll create a simple Object, or Entity, which we'll persist in the database. It's just a POJO.

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

public class ExampleEntity {
	
	private long id; 
	private String talky;

	public String getTalky() {
		return talky;
	}
	public void setTalky(String talky) {
		this.talky = talky;
	}
	public long getId() {
		return id;
	}
	public void setId(long id) {
		this.id = id;
	}

}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPROJECT/ExampleEntity.java

We could use annotations on the object to map it to the database, and leave JPA to sort out the tables etc, but that always leads to pain.
 
So we're creating the mapping.xml file we referred to earlier. (Ensure there's no whitespace at the start of the file)

echo '<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<entity-mappings xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/orm"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/orm    
  http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/orm_2_0.xsd"
  version="2.0">
    <entity class="com.example.YOURPROJECT.ExampleEntity"> 
      <table name="example" />
      <named-query name="list">
        <query>select p from ExampleEntity p</query>
      </named-query>       
      <attributes>
        <id name="id">
          <generated-value strategy="auto" />
        </id>
        <basic name="talky">
          <column name="talky" nullable="false"/>
        </basic>
      </attributes>
    </entity>    
</entity-mappings>
' > src/main/resources/META-INF/mapping.xml

This is saying:
We'd normally use a database migration to ensure the table 'example' above exists, but in our case here, let's just create it in the database directly. We're also creating a sequence table so JPA can create unique primary keys.

psql -h localhost -U test_username -d test_database -c "create table example (id bigserial not null primary key, talky varchar(1000) not null);"
psql -h localhost -U test_username -d test_database -c "create table sequence (seq_name varchar(50) not null primary key, seq_count int);insert into sequence (seq_name, seq_count) values('SEQ_GEN', 1);"    

Now let's create a new request that create a JPA connections, add something to our database and lists everything in it to return.
 
The comments should example the basics of JPA and EntityManagers.

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import javax.persistence.EntityManager;
import javax.persistence.EntityTransaction;
import javax.persistence.Persistence;
import javax.persistence.TypedQuery;
import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.PathParam;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;
import org.apache.log4j.Logger;

@Path("example_jpa")
public class ExampleJPARequest {

	@Path("{example}")
	@GET
	@Produces(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
	public List<ExampleResource> example(@PathParam("example") String example) {
		// Get the EntityManager by creating an EntityManagerFactory via the persistence-unit name we provided.
		EntityManager entityManager = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("PERSISTENCE_UNIT_NAME").createEntityManager();
		EntityTransaction transaction = entityManager.getTransaction(); // Not useful here, but useful to see
		List<ExampleEntity> list  = null;
		try {
			transaction.begin();
			// Add an entity
			ExampleEntity entity = new ExampleEntity();
			entity.setTalky(example);
			entityManager.persist(entity);
			// List entities, via the named query we defined in mapping.xml
			TypedQuery<ExampleEntity> nq = entityManager.createNamedQuery("list", ExampleEntity.class);
			list = nq.getResultList();
			// Commit the transaction
			transaction.commit();
		} catch (Exception e) {
			Logger.getLogger(getClass()).error("Problem persisting", e);
			transaction.rollback();
			throw e; // Ergo showing a 500 error. You may want to throw an exception that is not detailing stuff about your JPA connection
		} finally {
			entityManager.clear(); // Clears all the entities from the EntityManager
			entityManager.close();
		}
		
		// Adapt the entities into objects to return as JSON
		ArrayList<ExampleResource> resList = new ArrayList<ExampleResource>();
		for (ExampleEntity exampleEntity : list) {
			ExampleResource exampleItem = new ExampleResource();
			exampleItem.setStuff(exampleEntity.getTalky());
			resList.add(exampleItem);
		}
		return resList;
	}
}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPROJECT/ExampleJPARequest.java

You should normally separate the database layer and entity adapters from the request layer, which can do nicely with Jersey's dependency injection, whic we'll come to later.
 
We can again run the project to see it in action:

gradle build
java -jar jetty-runner-9.1.0.M0.jar --port 8081 build/libs/YOUR_PROJECT_DIR.war

If you visit

http://localhost:8081/YOUR_PATH/example_jpa/ONE

and then visit

http://localhost:8081/YOUR_PATH/example_jpa/TWO

You should see the JSON

[{"stuff":"ONE"},{"stuff":"TWO"}]

java JPA postgresql java-web-quick-start jersey


PART 2: Using JSON with Jersey 2

(This is part of a series http://blog.denevell.org/category_java-web-quick-start.html)
 
We previously included the import in our build.gradle

compile 'org.glassfish.jersey.media:jersey-media-json-jackson:2.6'

And created a JerseyApplication that had the line

register(JacksonFeature.class);

This allows use to use JSON via the Jackson library with Jersey.
 
Now create a POJO which we'll use for transmitting the JSON. (Note the @XMLRootElement annotation which means it'll be serialised, into JSON in our case).

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import javax.xml.bind.annotation.XmlRootElement;

@XmlRootElement
public class ExampleResource {
	
	private String stuff;

	public String getStuff() {
		return stuff;
	}

	public void setStuff(String stuff) {
		this.stuff = stuff;
	}

}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPROJECT/ExampleResource.java


Now let's create a new request that will return an array of these objects.

echo '
package com.example.YOURPROJECT;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

import javax.ws.rs.GET;
import javax.ws.rs.Path;
import javax.ws.rs.Produces;
import javax.ws.rs.core.MediaType;

@Path("example_json")
public class ExampleJSONRequest {

    @GET
    @Produces(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
    public List<ExampleResource> example() {
        ArrayList<ExampleResource> resList = new ArrayList<ExampleResource>();
        ExampleResource exampleItem = new ExampleResource();
        exampleItem.setStuff("Some stuff");
        resList.add(exampleItem);
        ExampleResource exampleItem1 = new ExampleResource();
        exampleItem1.setStuff("Some more stuff");
        resList.add(exampleItem1);
        return resList;
    }
}
' > src/main/java/com/example/YOURPROJECT/ExampleJSONRequest.java

The differences from our previous request are that the @Path has changed, we're not longer concerned about a @PathParam, and the @Produces method now says we're returning JSON, not plain text.
 
Let's now build it, run it and look at the response.

gradle build
java -jar jetty-runner-9.1.0.M0.jar --port 8081 build/libs/YOUR_PROJECT_DIR.war
 

Then if you go to the url below you will see [{"stuff":"Some stuff"},{"stuff":"Some more stuff"}]

http://localhost:8081/YOUR_PATH/example_json


jersey java json java-web-quick-start

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