You need to be running a 3.8 kernel or above, hence the need for Jessie and the installation of that kernel.
You need to install golang, and specially 1.2 or above else you'll get ipv6 errors, too. Get it from golang.org
You also need to have lxc and aufs-tools
apt-get install lxc aufs-tools
Then you need to setup your GOPATH environmental variable, create the docker directory in the src directory and clone docker into that.
mkdir -p src/github.com/dotcloud/
git clone https://github.com/dotcloud/docker
Then cd into the docker directory to use golang to pull all the dependencies and install docker into your GOPATH's bin directory
go get -v github.com/dotcloud/docker/...
go install -v github.com/dotcloud/docker/...
(The three dots mean do this for all the packages under said directory)
You should be able to run docker via
Before you can run a docker image you need to mount cgroups. Put this in your /etc/fstab
none /cgroup cgroup defaults 0 0
And then run
mkdir /cgroup && mount -a
You also need to enable ipv4 forwarding else your container won't be able to talk to the outside world.
sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
Finally you need to run docker as a daemon, and as root, too.
$GOPATH/bin/docker -d &
2013/10/19 23:15:48 WARNING: cgroup mountpoint not found for memory
2013/10/19 23:15:48 Listening for HTTP on /var/run/docker.sock (unix)
Now you can issue a pull request to get the base 120MB ubuntu container from the internet.
$GOPATH/bin/docker pull ubuntu
After it's downloaded it all, you can now use that container.
$GOPATH/bin/docker run ubuntu echo 'omg'
This should product something like
2013/10/19 23:22:55 POST /v1.6/containers/create
2013/10/19 23:22:55 POST /v1.6/containers/3fe0676d7e00/attach?stderr=1&stdout=1&stream=1
2013/10/19 23:22:55 POST /v1.6/containers/3fe0676d7e00/start
2013/10/19 23:22:55 GET /v1.6/containers/3fe0676d7e00/json